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What is an Intranasal Vaccine and how effective is it?

How useful is an intranasal vaccine?

Researchers across the globe have been working to create a vaccine that offers protection against Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Extreme Acute Respiratory Syndrome. While most of the experimental Covid-19 vaccines are being tested by intramuscular injection in human trials, only a few have followed the intranasal route, for the administration of the vaccine on the candidates.

However, Hyderabad-based Bharat Biotech announced on September 23 that it will produce up to one billion doses of a single-dose intranasal coronavirus vaccine. This will be done in partnership with the U.S. School of Medicine of Washington University in St Louis, Missouri.

The candidate for the coronavirus vaccine is a modern chimp-adenovirus-based vaccine. Phase 1 human trials will take place in the US and based on regulatory approval, further phases of clinical trials are likely to be performed in India. Bharat Biotech is also working in partnership with ICMR and NIV, Pune, on India’s indigenous Coronavirus vaccine.

Oxford University-AstraZeneca and Imperial College inhaled variants of COVID-19 vaccine candidates will be tested to see whether they have a localized immune reaction in the respiratory system.

Both the Oxford-AstraZeneca and Imperial vaccines are being tested by intramuscular injection in trials, but Imperial scientists said vaccines administered by inhalation might provide a more specialized reaction.

About Intranasal Vaccine

Intranasal vaccines are sprayed and breathed into the nostrils. Intranasal and intramuscular vaccines both tend to produce a blood response. Vaccines provided through the nose or mouth, however, can tap into another group of immune cells located in mucosal cells. Another form of antibody, called IgA, which is very effective in destroying gut and airway pathogens, can be produced by the B cells that reside here. T cells in this tissue can develop memory and take care of the locations where the pathogens were first observed.

In addition to the effect, according to experts, intranasal vaccines are very helpful in addressing the logistical challenge and reducing the reliance on qualified staff to administer the vaccine. During pandemics and outbreaks, the intranasal vaccine may be self-administered.

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